Courses and Workshop

New Products Management and Research Methodology

For Business Students, PhD Candidates, and Early-Career Researchers

Marketing Scales

Brand Related Scales

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

1. This brand is very familiar/unfamiliar to me.
2. Everybody/nobody here has heard of this brand.
3. I’m not at all/very knowledgeable about this brand.
4. I have never seen/have seen many advertisements for it in (country) magazines, radio, or TV.

Source: Steenkamp, Batra, and Alden (2003), JIBS (based on Oliver and Bearden [1985], JBR)

1. This is a very well-made brand.
2. This brand shows a very high level of overall quality.
3. This brand has poor workmanship. (reversed)
4. This brand has consistent quality.

Source: Zhou, Yang, and Hui (2010), JAMS (based on Sweeney and Soutar [2001], JR)

I think most people in  (country) consider (brand)…

1. a warm brand.
2. a friendly brand.
3. a kind brand.
4. a good-natured brand.

Source: Davvetas and Halkias (2018), IMR (adapted from Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu [2002], JPSP)

1. This brand has a long history.
2. This brand has been around for a long time.
3. My parents used this brand.

Source: Lehmann, Keller, and Farley (2008), JIM

1. (Brand) is a socially responsible brand.
2. (Brand) seems to make an effort to create new jobs.
3. (Brand) seems to be environmentally responsible.
4. (Brand) appears to support good causes.
5. (Brand) contributes to society.
6. (Brand) is more beneficial for the welfare of society than other brands.

Source: Iglesias, Markovic, Singh, and Sierra (2019), JBE

Consumer-related scales

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

1. When I see a product somewhat different from the usual, I check it out.
2. I am often among the first people to try a new product.
3. I like to try new and different things.

Source: Ailawadi, Neslin, and Gedenk (2001), JM

Personal authenticity seeking

1. I like products that reflect important values I care about.
2. I prefer products and experiences that are in line with my real self.
3. I appreciate products and experiences that show me what is really important in life.
4. Being true to oneself is important when making purchases.

True authenticity seeking

1. I prefer original products to copies or imitations.
2. I make an effort to use original and genuine products whenever possible.
3. I do not like to purchase imitations.
4. If I buy a product, it is important that I buy the original version.

Iconic authenticity seeking

1. I prefer products that are close to the original products.
2. As long as the product resembles the original product, I am satisfied.
3. For me, experiences are authentic as long as they resemble the original one.

Source: Bartsch, Zeugner-Roth, and Katsikeas (2022), JAMS

Creative choice:

1. I often combine possessions in such a way that I create a personal image that cannot be duplicated.
2. I often try to find a more interesting version of run-of-the-mill products because I enjoy being original.
3. I actively seek to develop my personal uniqueness by buying special products or brands.
4. Having an eye for products that are interesting and unusual assists me in establishing a distinctive image.

Unpopular choice:

1. When it comes to the products I buy and the situations in which I use them, I have broken customs and rules.
2. I have often violated the understood rules of my social group regarding what to buy or own.
3. I have often gone against the understood rules of my social group regarding when and how certain products are properly used.
4. I enjoy challenging the prevailing taste of people I know by buying something they would not seem to accept.

Avoidance of similarity:

1. When a product I won becomes popular among the general population, I begin to use it less.
2. I often try to avoid products or brands that I know are bought by the general population.
3. As a rule, I dislike products or brands that are customarily bought by everyone.
4. The more commonplace a product or brand is among the general population, the less interested I am in buying it.

Unique consumption behavior:

1. I have decorative walls in my house like brick stones, plaster walls, etc.
2. I have a wet bar in my kitchen.
3. I have a tattoo on my body.
4. I own a pure-bred cat, dog, or horse.
5. I own a unique collection (knives, stamps, coins, etc.)

Source: Ruvio, Shoham, and Brencic (2008), IMR (based on  Tian, Bearden, and Hunter [2001], JCR)

1. I tend to avoid talking to strangers.
2. I prefer a routine way of life to an unpredictable one full of change.
3. I would not describe myself as a risk-taker.
4. I do not like taking too many chances to avoid making a mistake.
5. I am very cautious about how I spend my money.
6. I am seldom the first person to try anything new.

Source: Sharma (2010), JAMS

1. I am very concerned about low prices, but I am equally concerned about product quality.
2. When shopping, I compare the prices of different brands to be sure I get the best value for my money.
3. When purchasing a product, I always try to maximize the quality I get for the money I spend.
4. When I buy products, I like to be sure that I am getting my money’s worth.

Source: Sharma (2011), JIBS (based on Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton [1990], JM)

Other measurement scales

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.
Toggle Content
Toggle Content
Toggle Content

Category-related scales

1. In general, I have a strong interest in this product category.
2. This product category is very important to me.
3. This product category matters to me a lot.

Source: Flynn, Goldsmith, and Eastman (1996), JAMS (based on Beatty and Talpade [1994], JCR)

1. When I purchase a product in the given category, the brand plays – compared to other things – an important role.
2. When purchasing, I focus mainly on the brand.
3. To me, it is important to purchase a brand name product.
4. The brand plays a significant role as to how satisfied I am with the product.

Source: Fischer, Völckner, and Sattler (2010), JMR

1. To me, the brand is indeed important because I believe that other people judge me on the basis of it.
2. I purchase particular brands because I know that other people notice them.
3. I purchase particular brands because I have much in common with other buyers of that brand.
4. I pay attention to the brand because its buyers are just like me.

Source: Fischer, Völckner, and Sattler (2010), JMR

1. Not fun/fun
2. Dull/exciting
3. Not delightful/delightful
4. Not thrilling/thrilling
5. Unenjoyable/enjoyable

Source: Voss, Spangenberg, and Grohmann (2003), JMR

1. Effective/ineffective
2. Helpful/unhelpful
3. Functional/not functional
4. Necessary/unnecessary
5. Practical/impractical

Source: Voss, Spangenberg, and Grohmann (2003), JMR

Ad-related scales

Information conveyed in advertising is…


1. Honest
2. Truthful
3. Credible
4. Reliable
5. Dependable
6. Accurate
7. Factual
8. Complete
9. Clear


10. Valuable
11. Good
12. Useful
13. Helps people make the best decisions


14. Likable
15. Enjoyable
16. Positive

Willingness to rely on

17. I am willing to rely on ad-conveyed information when making purchase-related decisions.
18. I am willing to make important purchase-related decisions based on ad-conveyed information.
19. I am willing to consider the ad-conveyed information when making purchase-related decisions.
20. I am willing to recommend the product or service that I have seen in ads to my friends or family.

Source: Soh, Reid, and King (2009), JA

adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

How would you best describe this advertisement?

1. Good/bad
2. Like/dislike
3. Interesting/boring
4. Appealing/unappealing

Source: Reardon, Miller, Foubert, Vida, and Rybina (2006), JIM

1. We can depend on getting the truth in most advertising.
2. Advertising’s aim is to inform the consumer.
3. I believe advertising is informative.
4. Advertising is generally truthful.
5. Advertising is a reliable source of information about the quality and performance of products.
6. Advertising is truth well told.
7. In general, advertising presents a true picture of the product being advertised.
8. I feel I’ve been accurately informed after viewing most advertisements.
9. Most advertising provides consumers with essential information.

Source: Obermiller and Spangenberg (1998), JCP

1. Trustworthy/not trustworthy
2. Open-minded/not open-minded
3. Good/bad
4. Expert/not expert
5. Experienced/not experienced
6. Trained/untrained

Source: Grewal, Gotlieb, and Marmorstein (1994), JCR

1. When I think of endorser as an endorser, brand is one of the first brands I think about.
2. The idea of endorser endorsing brand represents a very good fit.
3. I think endorser is a relevant endorser for brand.
4. I think endorser is an appropriate endorser for brand.

Source: Sengupta, Goodstein, Boninger (1997), JCR

Product-related scales

1. It is very likely that I will buy (brand).
2. I will purchase (brand) the next time I need a (product).
3. I will definitely try (brand).
4. Suppose that a friend called you last night to get your advice in his/her search for a (product). Would you recommend him/her to buy a (product) from (brand)?

Source: Putrevu and Lord (1994), JA

1. Providing services as promised
2. Dependability in handling customers’ service problems
3. Performing services right the first time
4. Providing services at the promised time
5. Maintaining error-free records


6. Keeping customers informed about when services will be performed
7. Prompt service to customers
8. Willingness to help customers
9. Readiness to respond to customers’ requests


10. Employees who instill confidence in customers
11. Making customers feel safe in their transactions
12. Employees who are consistently courteous
13. Employees who have the knowledge to answer customer questions


14. Giving customers individual attention
15. Employees who deal with customers in a caring fashion
16. Having the customer’s best interest at heart
17. Employees who understand the needs to their customers
18. Convenient business hours


19. Modern equipment
20. Visually appealing facilities
21. Employees who have a neat, professional appearance
22. Visually appealing materials associated with the service

Source: Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1994), JR

1. New to existing product
2. New to your customer
3. New to your market know-how
4. New to your technology know-how
5. New process technology in your industry
6. New product technology in your industry
7. First introduction into the market
8. Product explores new marketplace

Source: Lau, Tang, and Yam (2010), JPIM

1. I feel like this is my [object].
2. I feel a very high degree of personal ownership of [the object].
3. I feel like I own this [object].

Source: Peck and Shu (2009), JCR (adapted from Pierce, Kostova, and Dirks [2001], AMR)

Based on the information provided about this product…

1. how certain are you as to how well the product would function? (not at all certain/very certain)
2. how well can you judge how the product would function? (hard for me to judge/easy for me to judge)
3. I feel the product would probably not work properly/work properly. 

Source: Weathers, Sharma, and Wood (2007), JR